net

The net module provides you with an asynchronous network wrapper. It contains
functions for creating both servers and clients (called streams). You can include
this module with require('net');.

net.createServer([options][, connectionListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Creates a new server. The connectionListener argument is
automatically set as a listener for the ‘connection’ event.

options is an object with the following defaults:

{
  allowHalfOpen: false,
  pauseOnConnect: false
}

If allowHalfOpen is true, then the socket won’t automatically send a FIN
packet when the other end of the socket sends a FIN packet. The socket becomes
non-readable, but still writable. You should call the end() method explicitly.
See ‘end’ event for more information.

If pauseOnConnect is true, then the socket associated with each incoming
connection will be paused, and no data will be read from its handle. This allows
connections to be passed between processes without any data being read by the
original process. To begin reading data from a paused socket, call resume().

Here is an example of an echo server which listens for connections
on port 8124:

var net = require('net');
var server = net.createServer(function(c) { //'connection' listener
  console.log('client connected');
  c.on('end', function() {
    console.log('client disconnected');
  });
  c.write('hello\r\n');
});
server.listen(8124, function() { //'listening' listener
  console.log('server bound');
});

Test this by using telnet:

telnet localhost 8124

To listen on the socket /tmp/echo.sock the third line from the last would
just be changed to

server.listen('/tmp/echo.sock', function() { //'listening' listener

Use nc to connect to a UNIX domain socket server:

nc -U /tmp/echo.sock

net.connect(options[, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

net.createConnection(options[, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

A factory function, which returns a new ‘net.Socket’
and automatically connects with the supplied options.

The options are passed to both the ‘net.Socket’
constructor and the ‘socket.connect’
method.

The connectListener parameter will be added as a listener for the
‘connect’ event once.

Here is an example of a client of the previously described echo server:

var net = require('net');
var client = net.connect({port: 8124},
    function() { //'connect' listener
  console.log('connected to server!');
  client.write('world!\r\n');
});
client.on('data', function(data) {
  console.log(data.toString());
  client.end();
});
client.on('end', function() {
  console.log('disconnected from server');
});

net.connect(port[, host][, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

net.createConnection(port[, host][, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

A factory function, which returns a new
‘net.Socket’ and automatically connects to the
supplied port and host.

If host is omitted, 'localhost' will be assumed.

The connectListener parameter will be added as a listener for the
‘connect’ event once.

net.connect(path[, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

net.createConnection(path[, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

A factory function, which returns a new unix
‘net.Socket’ and automatically connects to the
supplied path.

The connectListener parameter will be added as a listener for the
‘connect’ event once.

Class: net.Server

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

This class is used to create a TCP or local server.

server.listen(port[, hostname][, backlog][, callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

Begin accepting connections on the specified port and hostname. If the
hostname is omitted, the server will accept connections on any IPv6 address
(::) when IPv6 is available, or any IPv4 address (0.0.0.0) otherwise. A
port value of zero will assign a random port.

Backlog is the maximum length of the queue of pending connections.
The actual length will be determined by your OS through sysctl settings such as
tcp_max_syn_backlog and somaxconn on linux. The default value of this
parameter is 511 (not 512).

This function is asynchronous. When the server has been bound,
‘listening’ event will be emitted. The last parameter callback
will be added as a listener for the ‘listening’ event.

One issue some users run into is getting EADDRINUSE errors. This means that
another server is already running on the requested port. One way of handling this
would be to wait a second and then try again. This can be done with

server.on('error', function (e) {
  if (e.code == 'EADDRINUSE') {
    console.log('Address in use, retrying...');
    setTimeout(function () {
      server.close();
      server.listen(PORT, HOST);
    }, 1000);
  }
});

(Note: All sockets in Ruff set SO_REUSEADDR already)

server.listen(path[, callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

  • path {String}
  • callback {Function}

Start a local socket server listening for connections on the given path.

This function is asynchronous. When the server has been bound,
‘listening’ event will be emitted. The last parameter callback
will be added as a listener for the ‘listening’ event.

On UNIX, the local domain is usually known as the UNIX domain. The path is a
filesystem path name. It is subject to the same naming conventions and
permissions checks as would be done on file creation, will be visible in the
filesystem, and will persist until unlinked.

server.listen(handle[, callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

  • handle {Object}
  • callback {Function}

The handle object can be set to either a server or socket (anything
with an underlying _handle member), or a {fd: <n>} object.

This will cause the server to accept connections on the specified
handle, but it is presumed that the file descriptor or handle has
already been bound to a port or domain socket.

Listening on a file descriptor is not supported on Windows.

This function is asynchronous. When the server has been bound,
‘listening’ event will be emitted.
The last parameter callback will be added as a listener for the
‘listening’ event.

server.listen(options[, callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

  • options {Object} - Required. Supports the following properties:
    • port {Number} - Optional.
    • host {String} - Optional.
    • backlog {Number} - Optional.
  • callback {Function} - Optional.

The port, host, and backlog properties of options, as well as the
optional callback function, behave as they do on a call to
server.listen(port, [host], [backlog], [callback]). Alternatively, the path
option can be used to specify a UNIX socket.

If exclusive is false (default), then cluster workers will use the same
underlying handle, allowing connection handling duties to be shared. When
exclusive is true, the handle is not shared, and attempted port sharing
results in an error. An example which listens on an exclusive port is
shown below.

server.listen({
  host: 'localhost',
  port: 80
});

server.close([callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Stops the server from accepting new connections and keeps existing
connections. This function is asynchronous, the server is finally
closed when all connections are ended and the server emits a ‘close’ event.
The optional callback will be called once the 'close' event occurs. Unlike
that event, it will be called with an Error as its only argument if the server
was not open when it was closed.

server.address()

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Returns the bound address, the address family name and port of the server
as reported by the operating system.
Useful to find which port was assigned when giving getting an OS-assigned address.
Returns an object with three properties, e.g.
{ port: 12346, family: 'IPv4', address: '127.0.0.1' }

Example:

var server = net.createServer(function (socket) {
  socket.end("goodbye\n");
});

// grab a random port.
server.listen(function() {
  address = server.address();
  console.log("opened server on %j", address);
});

Don’t call server.address() until the 'listening' event has been emitted.

server.maxConnections

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Set this property to reject connections when the server’s connection count gets
high.

It is not recommended to use this option once a socket has been sent to a child
with child_process.fork().

server.connections

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

The number of concurrent connections on the server.

This becomes null when sending a socket to a child with
child_process.fork(). To poll forks and get current number of active
connections use asynchronous server.getConnections instead.

server.getConnections(callback)

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Asynchronously get the number of concurrent connections on the server. Works
when sockets were sent to forks.

Callback should take two arguments err and count.

net.Server is an EventEmitter with the following events:

Event: ‘listening’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Emitted when the server has been bound after calling server.listen.

Event: ‘connection’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

  • {Socket object} The connection object

Emitted when a new connection is made. socket is an instance of
net.Socket.

Event: ‘close’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Emitted when the server closes. Note that if connections exist, this
event is not emitted until all connections are ended.

Event: ‘error’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

  • {Error Object}

Emitted when an error occurs. The ‘close’ event will be called directly
following this event. See example in discussion of server.listen.

Class: net.Socket

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

This object is an abstraction of a TCP or local socket. net.Socket
instances implement a duplex Stream interface. They can be created by the
user and used as a client (with connect()) or they can be created by Ruff
and passed to the user through the 'connection' event of a server.

new net.Socket([options])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Construct a new socket object.

options is an object with the following defaults:

{ fd: null,
  allowHalfOpen: false,
  readable: false,
  writable: false
}

fd allows you to specify the existing file descriptor of socket.
Set readable and/or writable to true to allow reads and/or writes on this
socket (NOTE: Works only when fd is passed).
About allowHalfOpen, refer to createServer() and 'end' event.

socket.connect(options[, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Opens the connection for a given socket.

For TCP sockets, options argument should be an object which specifies:

  • port: Port the client should connect to (Required).

  • host: Host the client should connect to. Defaults to 'localhost'.

  • localAddress: Local interface to bind to for network connections.

  • localPort: Local port to bind to for network connections.

  • lookup : Custom lookup function. Defaults to dns.lookup.

Normally this method is not needed, as net.createConnection opens the
socket. Use this only if you are implementing a custom Socket.

This function is asynchronous. When the ‘connect’ event is emitted the
socket is established. If there is a problem connecting, the 'connect' event
will not be emitted, the 'error' event will be emitted with the exception.

The connectListener parameter will be added as a listener for the
‘connect’ event.

socket.connect(port[, host][, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

socket.connect(path[, connectListener])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

As socket.connect(options[, connectListener]),
with options either as either {port: port, host: host} or {path: path}.

socket.write(data[, encoding][, callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0

socket.write(data[, callback])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Sends data on the socket. The second parameter specifies the encoding in the
case of a string–it defaults to UTF8 encoding.

Returns true if the entire data was flushed successfully to the kernel
buffer. Returns false if all or part of the data was queued in user memory.
'drain' will be emitted when the buffer is again free.

The optional callback parameter will be executed when the data is finally
written out - this may not be immediately.

socket.end([data][, encoding])

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Half-closes the socket. i.e., it sends a FIN packet. It is possible the
server will still send some data.

If data is specified, it is equivalent to calling
socket.write(data, encoding) followed by socket.end().

socket.destroy()

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Ensures that no more I/O activity happens on this socket. Only necessary in
case of errors (parse error or so).

net.Socket instances are EventEmitter with the following events:

socket.localAddress

Ruff available: v1.11.6

The string representation of the local IP address the remote client is connecting on. For example, in a server listening on ‘0.0.0.0’, if a client connects on ‘192.168.1.1’, the value of socket.localAddress would be ‘192.168.1.1’.

socket.localPort

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

The numeric representation of the local port. For example, 80 or 21.

Event: ‘lookup’

Ruff available: v1.6.0

Emitted after resolving the hostname but before connecting.
Not applicable to UNIX sockets.

  • err {Error | Null} The error object. See dns.lookup().
  • address {String} The IP address.
  • family {String | Null} The address type. See dns.lookup().

Event: ‘connect’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Emitted when a socket connection is successfully established.
See connect().

Event: ‘data’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

  • {Buffer object}

Emitted when data is received. The argument data will be a Buffer or
String. Encoding of data is set by socket.setEncoding().
(See the Readable Stream section for more information.)

Note that the data will be lost if there is no listener when a Socket
emits a 'data' event.

Event: ‘end’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Emitted when the other end of the socket sends a FIN packet.

By default (allowHalfOpen == false) the socket will destroy its file
descriptor once it has written out its pending write queue. However, by
setting allowHalfOpen == true the socket will not automatically end()
its side allowing the user to write arbitrary amounts of data, with the
caveat that the user is required to end() their side now.

Event: ‘timeout’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

Emitted if the socket times out from inactivity. This is only to notify that
the socket has been idle. The user must manually close the connection.

Warning: This event implementation is different from node.js. If you are not so familiar with its implementation, please use it cautiously.

See also: socket.setTimeout()

Event: ‘close’

Ruff available: v1.6.0
Ruff Lite available: v0.6.0

  • had_error {Boolean} true if the socket had a transmission error.

Emitted once the socket is fully closed. The argument had_error is a boolean
which says if the socket was closed due to a transmission error.

net.isIP(input)

Ruff available: v1.6.0

Tests if input is an IP address. Returns 0 for invalid strings,
returns 4 for IP version 4 addresses, and returns 6 for IP version 6 addresses.

net.isIPv4(input)

Ruff available: v1.6.0

Returns true if input is a version 4 IP address, otherwise returns false.

net.isIPv6(input)

Ruff available: v1.6.0

Returns true if input is a version 6 IP address, otherwise returns false.